AH-511 Small hydro Power System Planning and Management
Water Resources Development purposes, Justification of SHP development, Types of hydro projects, Hydrological analysis and design, forecasting and prediction; Simulation for unguaged small streams, stream gauging and stage discharge curve; Runoff and its estimation by different methods; Estimation of power potential, Reconnaissance and feasibility studies; Small hydro power planning in overall energy development economics; Site selection; Evaluation, allocation of cost and financing of projects, management of SHP.
Hydraulics and structural designs of civil works; national and international standards & codes of practice; Small hydro power related civil structures; Diversion and intake structures; Power channel, desilting tank and tail race channel ; Balancing reservoir, spillway and forebay tank; Penstock anchor blocks and saddles; Power house building, machine foundations; Cross drainage works.
Energy reserves and estimates, global energy scenario, renewable energy visa-vis environment implications; solar Energy application, availability of solar radiation energy; Collection & concentration for photo-thermal application, thermal storage, photovoltaic & thermo/electric conversions; Wind energy : Wind energy application-types of wind mills, characteristics, elementary design principles; Biomass Energy : Biomass as a source of energy -Energy Plantation, production of fuel wood; Bio-conversion of agricultural & animal wastes, Biogas-its generation & utilisation; Ocean and geothermal energy, hydrogen energy, alternate fuels for surface transportation.
Introduction of electrical works and controls, sizing of single phase and three phase generators; Power factor and power factor correction methodologies; Characteristics, specification and testing of generators & excitation systems; Transformers, circuit breakers; Electromechanical/Electronic governors, Protection and control of generation stations, Design of auxiliary and grounding system; Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and integrated computer control system for SHP station; Switch yard equipments.
Viscosity, streamlines, laminar & turbulent flow, boundary layers; Pressure in a liquid at rest and in motion; Continuity equation, Bernoulli equation, momentum equation and their applications to turbines; Potential flow, superposition and vorticity, circulation and kutta condition. The Reynolds number, scaling & cavitation.
Types of turbines-Conventional impulse, reaction, axial flow. Non-conventional propeller ( tubular and bulb) and cross flow type turbines, use of pumps-asturbines, Power transmission system and mechanical governors for turbines; Characteristics of turbines w.r.t. head. discharge and power, Selection of gates and valves for small hydro plants; Turbines-installation, operation and maintenance.
Introduction to C++, Control structure functions ; Classes and data abstraction; Pointer and strings inheritance; Virtual function and polymorphism, C++ stream input/output models; Models classifications, Mathematical models, Physical models, analog models and others, Estimation of model parameters; simulation methodology : Experimental nature of simulation, steps involved in simulation studies, simulation application; Computer technique for simulation : Random numbers, computer generation of Pseudo random; Application : Modelling of Civil, Electrical and Mechanical components of small hydro and Renewable Energy Projects.
Basic ecological Principles : Introduction to ecosystem ecology, components of ecosystem: Energy flow, nutrient cycling, cybernetics, ecological diversity, Interactions of various components of environment, ecological distorders; Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) of water resources projects with emphasis on renewable energy projects e.g. SHP, biomass, solar energy etc.; Conservation of resources, environmental policies, laws & acts; significance of EIA of renewable energy projects, case studies of large & small hydro projects and socio-cultural system; environmental compatible growth.
Hydraulic Design : Flow through Open Channels : Basic Concepts – Classification of flow. Resistance Equation, Uniform flow in Mobile Boundary Channels. Sediment Transport-Bed load & suspended load, specific Energy & Critical depth, Hydraulic Jump, channels of efficient Cross Section, Channel Transitions, Preliminary Idea of Gradually varied Flow, Backwater curves
Flow Through Pipes : Smooth & Rough boundaries, Resistance of Smooth & Artificially roughened pipes, Commercial Pipes – Moody’s Diagram. Energy Losses in Sudden expansion, sudden contraction, transitions, bends and fittings & valves.
Structural Design : Materials for reinforced cement concrete, Properties of concrete, Design loads, Stressed and bending moment, Design of reinforced concrete beams, columns, slabs and foundation .
Hydraulic Machines : Pumps and turbines, their working principles, Selection of machine, components like Greases bearings and bolts.
Electrical Systems : Generator; Synchronous and Induction Generator rating and characteristics. Transformer; Types; Rating and Characteristics; Electrical protection; Generation, Transformer Principles. Control System; Switch Gear; Types and Characteristics.
Introductory concepts, Basic concepts of costs and output; Demand and supply of energy. types and patterns, estimating the demand, price and income, elasticity, inflation, taxes, subsidy etc.; Renewable Energy Projects : Projects costs and benefits, Economic-financial and social feasibility; Discounting technique-NPV, BC ratio and IRR : Irreversibilities and role of uncertainty decisions; Production function, estimation of MVP’s influencing parameters and computation and optimum use of resources ; Pricing of energy and policies, Acts, Marginal analysis technique, cost of energy generation, energy tariff.
Properties of wind, wind velocity, power from wind roses, site selection; types of wind turbines, characteristics, construction, aerodynamic, considerations of wind mill design, choice of plant type; regulating system.
Design concepts of turbines-impulse, reaction and axial type; Design of turbine components runner shaft, guide mechanism, casing, bearing, control gates & tubes; Design of intake, spillway, draft tubes and valves; Recent trends in the turbines; Specific problems of hydro turbines; Geometric similarity, hill curves and model testing of turbines; Specific problems of hydro turbines viz., cavitation, vibration etc.; Testing of prototypes of turbines, valves etc.
Industrial instrumentation; transducers and their applications; Instrumentation for power system : Analog instruments and measurements; Instruments for measuring voltage and current; average, peak and peak to peak responding voltmeter; Electronic voltmeters for non-sinusoidal voltage, d.c. voltmeters, mechanical & electrical tachometer, altimeter; Instrument transformers; Current transformers and potential transformer; Digital instrumentation, technology of regulators, sensors and actuators, recorders, signal processing circuits, data acquisition system; A.C. Bridges; General equation for bridge balance; General form of A.C. Bridge, measurement of self inductances, capacitance and mutual inductance with the help of AC. bridges; Case study of the instrumentation schemes used in small hydro power development.
Load forecasting, Rural load management; Survey and profiling of Transmission and Distribution (T&D) lines; Design of L.T. distribution lines and substations for rural electrical systems; Load flow and short circuit analysis, coordination between power and
telecommunication lines, maintenance of T&D lines; Case study of a typical system
Remote sensing : Introduction, Satellite System, Geometric and radiometric properties; Basic computer - based operations, Geometric correction, Geometric and radiometric properties; Basic computed - based operations, geometric correction ; Image processing, Image classification, fundamental of image. Interpretation : Geographic information system and its components; Basic concepts, Data representations; Query and analysis; Application of GIS in SHP.
Planning and layout of Electrical Equipment, estimating unit size, number and type; Power and control system : Generator protection, transformer protection, Busbar protection and feeder protection, Single line schematic and detailed wiring diagram Cable selection, scheduling and routing, Insulating coordination; Digital Integrated Control and Protection System for SHP ; Switchyard : Selection of equipment, Layout of switchyard equipment ; Auxiliary system, auxiliary power, grounding system, D.C. System and D.C. batteries; Lighting system, ventilation system, fire protection.
Construction planning, Construction facilities, schedules; Construction method; Construction plants and machinery - functional classification, Selection sizing and matching; Control and management - CPM/PERT; Coordination between different organisations; construction planning for river diversion, foundation construction and treatment, Contracts Operation.
Biomass production - biomass production from various sources including energy plantation, biomass harvest, handling & pre-conversion processes; Biomass conversion process; Biological & thermal processes - Anaerobic digestion, Fluidised bed gasification & utilisation and waste mitigation system; Utilisation of biomass for the generation of solid, liquid/gaseous fuels for meeting heat & power needs.
Operation and maintenance of weir intake, settling tanks, regulating gates, trash racks, tank, channels, forebay and penstocks; Maintenance of turbines governors, generator and excitation system; control panels-relays, circuit breaks, transformers, switchyard and interconnecting transmission lines; monitoring of fiscal condition of power plant.
Photo Voltaic principles, Solar cell characteristics and types of solar cells; PV system components - modules, batteries, battery charge regulators, block diodes, inverters, load distribution unit; monitoring equipment, circuit breakers; Types of PV system, application and sizing of PV systems; Installation and maintenance, grid interfacing.
Introduction : Organisation of an energy Conservation Program, General principles of EnergyAuditing and Survey Instrument, Assessment of the technical merits of energy conservation methods and techniques in specific applications, estimation of cost and potential of fuel and electricity savings as technical options. Energy and power supply technology and systems in residential and tertiary sector, transport sector, industrial sector, electrical utilities – technology and operation, total energy systems – CHP, Energy conservation technologies : transport, fuel efficient engines for transport, industry, heat recovery, process monitoring and control, materials conservation and recycling, buildings heat loss, effect of fabric, ventilation and solar gains, heat recovery, lighting, ventilation and cooling, thermal storage and heat pumps and cogeneration : topping Cycles and Bottoming Cycles.